Hubungan Senam Hamil terhadap Lama Persalinan Kala II pada Wanita Primigravida di RSKIA Sadewa Yogyakarta

Abstract: Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) is one indicator to see the health status of women. Figures mortality mother is also one of the set targets in the millenium development goals to 5 of improving maternal health in which the targets to be achieved until the year 2015 is reduced to ¾ the maternal mortality risk. Many factors cause the high MMR. One is the emotional state of pregnancy until the birth of a baby. During pregnancy, women experience physical and physicological changes that occur due to hormonal changes. This change will simplify the fetus to grow and develop until birth. Pregnant women in desperate need of fitness and optimal health to avoid risks that could jeopardize his condition and the fetus. Condition fit and healthy will help the mother in carrying out routine daily activity is recommended during this period is pregnancy exercise. The author would like to give an idea of the knowledge and benefits of pregnancy exercise of primigravida women in order to facilitate the birth process. The study was a cross sectional study. The subjects were primigravida women who give birth and do gymnastics in RSKIA Sadewa pregnant by 60 people. Data analysis by using Chi Square test with significance level p = 0,05. Chi Square test was used to test whether there is any relationship between pregnancy exercise on the long second stage of labor in primigravida women in RSKIA Sadewa. From the results of Chi Square test showed p = 0,001. Therefore p < 0,05. The H1 was accepted. This means that the hypothesis in the study stated that there is a relationship between pregnancy exercise on the long second stage of labor in primigravida women. These result indicate that pregnant women who exercise will have second stage of labor is higher than pregnant women who did not exercise. Pregnancy exercise is good exercise for the mother before delivery. Statistical analysis showed p value < 0,05 is 0,001 then this proves that there is a relationship between pregnancy and old gymnastic second stage of labor in primigravida women.
Keywords: Pregnant Exercise, Second Stage of  Labor, Primigravida Women.

Penulis: Izzatul Yazidah, Saribin Hasibuan

Published on : JKKI Volume 2, Nomor 6 Juli 2010

Pemeriksaan Antigen NS1 dan IgM Anti Salmonella typhi, sebagai Pengganti Uji Widal untuk Diagnosis Dengue dan Tifoid (Mendahulukan Dengue dari Demam Tifoid)

Abstract: Dengue was the most important arthropod-borne viral disease of public health significance. Compared to nine reporting countries in the 1950s, today the geographic distribution includes more than 112 countries worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 2.5 billion people are at risk of dengue infection. Most will have asymptomatic infections. A high number of cases was reported, mentioning that in 2005 there were 50,196 dengue cases in Indonesia. Some regions of Indonesia i.e. some areas of Sumatera and West Java areas were parts of a significant cluster of dengue mortality. The average number of dengue fever (DF)/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases reported to WHO per year has risen. The real figure is estimated to be closer to 50 million cases a year causing 24,000 deaths. Of an estimated 500,000 cases of DHF/DSS requiring hospitalisation each year, roughly 5% die according to WHO statistics. Half the world’s population lives in countries endemic area, underscoring the urgency to find solutions for dengue control. The consequence of severe illness was high mortality rates. In 20-30% of DHF cases, the patient develops shock. Worldwide, children younger than 15 years comprise 90% of DHF subjects. Different from dengue, typhoid fever in most cases is not fatal. Antibiotics, such as ampicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and cefepime, have been commonly used to treat typhoid fever in developed countries. Prompt treatment of the disease with antibiotics reduces the case-fatality rate to approximately 1%.  Classical disease duration is 4 weeks and most of the complications of typhoid fever develops in the third and fourth weeks of the infection in untreated patients. Although almost all systems may be involved, intestinal hemorrhage and perforation, toxic myocarditis, bronchitis and toxic confusion are the most common complications. Perforation rate was higher in patients with typhoid fever before chloramphenicol. This article describes the urgency of doctors to take a priority when diagnose dengue firstly rather than typhoid fever. Concerning with the acutely course of dengue disease that may be followed by severe complications and the high risk of mortality, the diagnosis of dengue disease has to be confirmed as soon as possible in order to achieve the proper management.
Keywords:
dengue-antigen NS1, fatality-mortality, typhoid fever, Widal- IgM anti Salmonella typhi

Penulis: MTS Darmawan

Published on : JKKI Volume 2, Nomor 6 Juli 2010

Toksidinamik Antibiotika Golongan Aminoglikosida

Abstract: The aminoglycosides are the mainstay in the treatment of serious gram-negative systemic infections. These are the broad spectrum antibiotics, and could be used for many infections of body systems. A disadvantage of the aminoglycosides is their association with nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, and neurotoxicity, all are associated with elevated serum levels. This article is carried out to give informations about mechanisms of toxicities and their pathology, which is highlighted on aspects of biochemistry, functional, and structural.

Penulis: Isnatin Miladiyah

Published on : JKKI Volume 2, Nomor 5 April 2010

Uji Daya Antioksidan Ekstrak Air Biji Kedelai Kuning (Glycine max (L) Merill) dibandingkan Vitamin E pada Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus) Jantan yang Diinduksi CCI

Abstract: The production of free radiacals (oxidants) that are not in balance with antioxidant activity can cause cell damage. The need for antioxidant is absolutely necessary not only endogenous but also exogenous. Yellow soybean is one of the plants that have antioxidant activity, which can reduce the effects of free radicals while vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant which is used. This study aims to determine antioxidant activity of water extract in the soybean seed yellow (Glycine max (L) Merill) compared the decreased content of vitamin E on malondialdehyde (MDA) in the rat (Rattus norvegicus) male induced by CCL4. This study is an experimental research laboratory with a pretest-posttest control group. 25 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into 5 treatment groups. Group I (positive control vitamin E), group II, III, and IV were given water extract of yellow soybean (Glycine max (L) Meril) with a concentration of 2.5%, respectively, 10%, and 40%. Group V is a negative control distilled water. Treatment was given for 5 days. On 6th day, all groups treated with CCI4 0.2 ml/200 g BB. Antioxidant activity measured by the decrease in serum MDA levels before and after treatment. Statistical analysis using One Way ANOVA. In One Way Anova test p value = 0.196 (p> 0.05), which showed no significant difference (not significant) toward the mean decrease in rat blood serum MDA in all groups. Water extract of yellow soybean (Glycine max (L) Merill) a difference between the antioxidant activity compared vitamin E as an antioxidant in white rats (Rattus novergicus) male Wistar strain which has been induced CCL4 but this difference was not statistically significantly.

Keywords: water extract of yellow soya beans (Glycine max (L) Merill), serum MDA, antioxidants

Penulis: Eka Yuliana, Isnatin Miladiyah

Published on : JKKI Volume 2, Nomor 5 April 2010

Karakteristik Pasien Epilepsi di RSUD Panembahan Senopati Bantul Periode Januari – Desember 2009

abstract:  Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by recurrent seizures originating from the brain, which affects an episode of sensory, motor or autonomic phenomena with or without loss of consciousness. Epilepsy is the second most common occurrence chronic neurological conditions by a neurologist. The objective of study is to measure the distribution of characteristics of epilepsy patient in general hospital in Bantul Senopati Panembahan. This study is a retrospective observational descriptive analytic cross sectional design. Samples were taken from the population of all patients with epilepsy who went into the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Of 188 patients diagnosed with epilepsy as much as men (51.1%) and females (48.9%). Epilepsy is also the most widely attacked age <15 years (55.3) who are mostly students (47.9). type of attack is the most recurrent types of attacks (87.8%) while the most common type is generalized epilepsy (17.6%), focal (4.8%) and type of epilepsy that are not classified (77.7%). Types of drugs used for epilepsy treatment is phenytoin (84.0%) and the pattern of the therapy is monotherapy (78.7%). Epilepsy risk factors are history of CNS infection (3.7%), history of head trauma (122.8%), and a history of epilepsy in the family (3.7%). Based on chi square analysis of age of epilepsy has a statistically significant relationship with head trauma (P<0.05). The characteristics of epilepsy patients in general hospital in Senopati Panembahan Bantul occur most commnly in men, most aged <15 years, the majority of students. Type of attack is the most widely repeated attacks and type epilepsy is generalized. Treatment with the pattern of use of phenytoin monotherapy. Risk factors of incidence of epilepsy is the age and history of head trauma.
Keywords: characteristics, convulsions, epilepsy.

Penulis: Fitriani, Agus Taufiqurrahman

Published on : JKKI Volume 2, Nomor 5 April 2010

Alasan Ketidaktepatan Waktu Ibu untuk Melakukan Imunisasi Lengkap di Puskesmas Sawit Kabupaten Boyolali

Abstract: The infant mortality rate in Indonesia is generally caused by the disease can be prevented by immunization (PD3I). In 2008 showed decreasing success rates of immunization. The complete success of immunization in Public Health Centers Sawit District Boyolali amounted 70-90%. This study aimed to identify factors that cause mothers to postpone the full immunization for children from birth through age 24 months. The study was non-analytic descriptive, using cross sectional method, the data used primary data obtained from questionnaires completed by respondents. Processed by descriptive statistics with proportion calculations and presented in tables and pie charts. Completed immunization showed number is 100% perfect. The timeliness of the implementation of immunization showed that the mother with right time just 30% while 70% delayed the immunization. The reasons of mother to delay immunization is because that their child had fever, coughing colds without fever, diarrhea, laziness mother to wait a long time, has other activity, and because the child exposed to DHF.
Keywords: accuracy immunization, complete immunization, infant

Penulis: Taufiqurrochman Nur Amin, Titik Kuntari

Published on : JKKI Volume 2, Nomor 5 April 2010

Profil Gizi Buruk pada Balita di Kabupaten Lombok Utara

Abstract: According to data in 2005, number of malnutrition’s under 5th years children cases in NTB reach 10% from all of under 5th year children on the average 498.000 people. Amount number of malnutrition’s under 5th year children can be caused of social-economy status, parent’s education and knowledge about nutrition, child rearing patterns and accompanying disease. Malnutrition profile of under 5th year children is very important to know the life of malnutrition under 5th year children that seen from nutrition status, age, clinical symptom, social-economy and accompanying disease, also to know what makes it easier malnutrition and what therapy that must given to malnutrition patient. Knowing malnutrition profile in under 5th year children in North Lombok NTB in 2008 and 2009. This study is was done of subject’s medical report and observation, that is under 5th year children that have malnutrition in 2008 and 2009 using z  score by weight/height. This study’s structured form that includes the information required in the research, that is structured form that contains required info, like identity (name, age, sex, address source of funds), accompanying diseases, clinical symptom. The data obtained were performed using Excel program, then result from that frequency distribution was shown in table and diagram. The study results that amount of malnutrition patients reach 59 patients (97%) from 59 one, the highest age who suffer from malnutrition 18-24 month (20%), accompanying diseases suffered by most of diarrhea (25%), most clinical symptom are thin (39%), he source of funds used by many is not known that is as much 52%, and patient who received additional therapy as much as that 68%. Conclusions from this study, amount number of malnutrition’s under 5th year children with 18 – 24 month of age that accompanied by concomitant diseases in North Lombok in 2008 and 2009 was caused by low social-economy and less parent’s education and knowledge about nutrition.
Keywords: profile, malnutrition, under 5th year children

Penulis: Hafizah, Pariawan Lutfi Ghazali

Published on : JKKI Volume 2, Nomor 5 April 2010

Efek Pemaparan Ekstrak Etanol dan Ekstrak Air Sirih Merah (Piper crocatum) terhadap Hidrofobisitas Permukaan Sel Staphylococcus aureus

Abstract: Red betel vine has been proved having the benefit as antibacterial toward Staphylococcus aureus1. While bacteria infected usually hydrophobic interaction before. The purpose of the research is to know the ethanol extract and water extract effect toward Staphylococcus aureus surface hydrophobicity and to know the different effect between ethanol extract and water extract. The research is laboratory experimental. Ethanol extract and water extract consentration was made with dilution method so the concentration extracts were 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.13%, 1.57%, 0.84% and 0.42%. The method was used for determine cell surface hydrophobicity is based on Koga et al modification.2 Cell surface hidrophobicity of bacteria was compared between before and after exposure with ethanol and water extract. The measuring used spectrophotometer. The result was analyzed using Mann-Whitney test with SPSS programme. Hydrophobicity of Staphylococcus aureus cell surface was decreased on the exposure of ethanol extract or water extract of red betel vine. The first extract addition sharply decreased the hydrophobicity and the decrease became lower. This result is appropriate with the research of Razak et al.3 The decreasing hydrophobicity of Staphylococcus aureus cell surface is not significantly different between ethanol extract and water extract of red betel vine (p>0.05). Ethanol extract and water extract of red betel vine (Piper crocatum) have decreasing effect for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 cell surface. The exposure etahnol ectract and water extract of red betel vine is not significantly different.
Keywords: Red betel vine (Piper crocatum) – ethanol extract – water extract – hydrophobicity – Staphylococcus aureus

Penulis: Farida Juliantina Rachmawaty

Published on : JKKI Volume 2, Nomor 5 April 2010

Efek Anti Inflamasi Ekstrak Air Biji Kedelai Kuning (Glycine max) terhadap Udem pada Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus) Jantan yang Diinduksi Karagenin 1%

Abstract: Inflammation is a physiologic process of body if there is an injury mechanism, but if it’s happened excessively can threaten body. Anti-inflammation drugs were needed to control the dangerous effects. Because of synthetic anti-inflammation drugs are known have many harmful side effects, the traditional ones need to develop as alternative, one of them is soybean that guessed have the quality as an anti-inflammation. The objective of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammation effect of water extract of soybean’s seed in white male rat’s 1% carrageenan-induced paw edema. This study is a true experimental one that using 25 white male rats with 2-3 months of age and 200-250 grams of weight which divided into 5 groups, those are aquadest group, Dexamethasone group with 0,013 mg/200 g of rat’s weight in dose, and three concentration levels of water extract of soybean’s seed: 2,5%, 10%, and 40% orally. Thirty minutes after exposured by each group treatment, all of rats were injected with 0,1 mL of 1% carrageenan into left paw subplantarly. Paw edema volume was measured with plethysmometer every 30 minutes along 6 hours. Anti-inflammation capacity was measured by the comparison of AUC value between control and intervention groups. Statistic test was using SPSS with One Way ANOVA method that continued by post-Hoc test. The result shown that water extract of soybean’s seed can reduce the rat’s paw edema volume, but less effective than Dexamethasone (positive control). There is no adequate evidence to show that water extract of soybean’s seed was effective as an anti-inflammation compared to Dexamethasone yet.
Keywords: anti-inflammation, soybean’s seed, extract 1% carrageenan

Penulis: Novya Kusumaningrum, Isnatin Miladiyah

Published on : JKKI Volume 2, Nomor 4 Januari 2010

Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Perilaku Pemberian ASI Kolostrum di Dusun Kauman Hadiwarno Kabupaten Kudus

Abstract: Breastfeeding is very important aspect to the continuity of baby life to reach optimal baby grow. Colostrum is milk yielded by milk gland in last month of pregnancy and during postnatal. Initiation of early breastfeeding conducted by new mother bear to assist baby to obtain his/her first mother’s milk and it was proven that it can prevent 22% death risk of newborn baby. To know what factor can influence behavior of giving colostrum mother’s milk, to know the knowledge and behavior of giving colostrum mother’s milk in Kauman Hadiwarno Orchard. Corelative analytic research design, while according to data collecting use approach of sectional cross with questioner. Sampling technique use the quota sampling, way of sample choosing using random cluster sample. Factors affecting the behavior of giving colostrum mother’s milk in Kauman Hadiwarno Orchard are education (P = 0.002), number of children (P = 0.016) and income rate (P = 0.026). Behavior of giving colostrum mother’s milk of the majority of respondents categorized who gives colostrum mother’s milk consists of 58 persons (77.3%) and 17 persons (22.7%) who did not give colostrum mother’s milk, this is because the information about the benefits of colostrum mother’s milk has spread.
Keywords: breastfeeding, behavior, colostrum

Penulis: Imron Rosyadi, Titik Kuntari

Published on : JKKI Volume 2, Nomor 4 Januari 2010